The grace and might of God be with you, Most Serene Majesty, most gracious, well-beloved gentlemen!
Best Artists of All Time: Painting Composition and Design Sometimes called " disegno " - a term derived from Renaissance art which translates as both design and drawing, thus including the artist's idea of what he wants to create as well as its execution - painting design concerns the formal organization of various elements into a coherent whole.
These formal elements include: Linework fixes the relationship between adjacent or remote elements and areas of the painting surface, and their relative activity or passivity.
Many of the most famous paintings eg. The Last Supper by Leonardo Da Vinci are optically arranged around geometric shapes or a mixture thereof. Negative space can also be used to emphasise certain features of the composition.
It can be used in a purely descriptive manner - Egyptians used different colours to distinguish Gods or Pharaohs, and to differentiate men from women - or to convey moral messages or emotional moods, or enhance perspective fainter colours for distant backgrounds.
Titian and Venetian Colour Painting Above all, colour is used to depict the effects of light see the series of Haystacks or Rouen Cathedral by Claude Monetwhile many great painters like Caravaggio and Rembrandt have exploited the contrast between colours for dramatic effect - notably in the technique of chiaroscuro see Rembrandt's The Night Watch.
See colour in painting. Traditional painters do this by deploying the concept of linear perspectiveas developed during the Florentine Renaissance by Piero della Francesca and others see also the illusionistic techniques of quadratura and foreshorteningwhile Cubists like Picasso, Braque, Duchamp and Juan Gris, expressed space and volume by showing a range of overlapping "snapshots" of the same object as if viewed simultaneously from different viewpoints.
Still others, like naive naif or primitive-style painters show objects not in their true-life naturalistic relationship to each other, but separately, from whatever angle best shows their characteristic features - this includes the flattened stylistic forms used, for instance, by the Egyptians.
Cubist paintings depicting several "snapshots" of the same objects. Painting Interpretation In addition to creating a visual object, an artist also aims to infuse it with a degree of intellectual content, in the form of symbolism, a moral or social message, or some other meaningful content.
Thus, the famous American critic Clement Greenberg once stated that all great art should aim to create tension between visual appeal and interpretive possibility.
The history of art is full of examples of interpretive content. For example, Egyptian art is noted for its iconographic imagery, as are Byzantine panel paintings and pre-Renaissance frescos.
Renaissance pictures, such as those by Old Masters such as Botticelli, Leonardo and Raphaeloften took the form of highly complex allegorical works, a tradition that was maintained throughout the succeeding Baroque and Neoclassical eras of the 17th and 18th centuries.
Even still lifes, notably the genre of Vanitas paintingwere infused with moralistic allegory. However, the tradition waned somewhat during the 19th century, under the dominant influences of Romanticism, Impressionism and to a lesser extent Expressionism, before reemerging in the 20th century, when Cubism and Surrealism exploited it to the full.
Analysis of Modern Paintings Mediums of Painting Encaustic One of the main painting mediums of the ancient world, encaustic painting employs hot beeswax as a binding medium to hold coloured pigments and to enable their application to a surface - usually wood panels or walls.
It was widely used in Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Byzantine art. Fresco Fresco Italian for "fresh" refers to the method of painting in which pigments are mixed solely with water no binding agent used and then applied directly onto freshly laid plaster ground, usually on a plastered wall or ceiling.
The plaster absorbs the liquid paint and as it dries, retaining the pigments in the wall. Extra effects were obtained by scratching techniques like sgraffito. Tempera Instead of beeswax, the painting medium tempera employs an emulsion of water and egg yolk occasionally mixed with glue, honey or milk to bind the pigments.
Tempera painting was eventually superceded by oils, although as a method for painting on panels it endured for centuries. It was also widely used in medieval painting in the creation of illuminated manuscripts.
For more details about this genre, see: Gothic Illuminated Manuscripts Oils The dominant medium sinceoil painting uses oils like linseed, walnut, or poppyseed, as both a binder and drying agent.
Its popularity stems from the increased richness and glow that oil gives to the colour pigments. It also facilitated subtle details, using techniques like sfumatoas well as bold paintwork obtained through thick layering impasto. Watercolours and Gouache Watercolour painting - a rather unforgiving medium - developed in England - uses water soluble pigments pre-formulated with a binder, typically gum arabic.
When watercolours are thickened, made opaque and mixed with white, it is called gouache. Gouache was an important medium for many of the best miniaturists involved in early miniature portrait paintingbefore the use of enamel.
Acrylics The most modern of all mediums, acrylic painting is a man-made paint containing a resin derived from acrylic acid that combines some of the properties of watercolour and oils.
Highly versatile, it can be applied to almost any surface in varying amounts, ranging from thin washes to thick impastoed layers. It can give either a matt or gloss finish and is extremely fast-drying.
Popular with many famous paintersincluding David Hockney, acrylic painting may yet supercede oils during the 21st century.In "Concerning Christian Liberty," he expounded the doctrine of justification by faith, and gave a complete presentation of his theological position. In the "Babylonish Captivity of the Church," he criticized the sacramental system, and set up the Scriptures as the supreme authority in religion.
Speech to the Electors of Bristol (3 November ); as published in The Works of the Right Hon. Edmund Burke () A conscientious man would be cautious how he dealt in blood.
Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol (3 April ); as published in The Works of the Right Hon.
Edmund Burke . In the "Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation," Luther attacked the corruptions of the Church and the abuses of its authority, and asserted the right of the layman to spiritual independence.
In "Concerning Christian Liberty," he expounded the doctrine of . *On christian Liberty(leads to german peasant revolt of ) Appeal to the christian nobility of the german nation. *started english reformation *act in restrain of appeals *act of supermacy *dissolution of monarchies *the pilgramge of grace.
dissiloution of monarchies.
RESPECTED HISTORIAN RALF GEORG REUTH ARGUES THAT HITLER may have had a ‘real’ reason to hate the Jews. Noted for his breadth of knowledge on World Wars I and II and its prominent figures, German historian Reuth has enjoyed much acclaim for his numerous books covering the World Wars era.
Drawing. On Christian Liberty provides Luther’s understanding of liberty, relating freedom from the bondage of sin and the consequent liberty to salvation through faith and not works.
Of the four, Luther’s most political work is An Appeal to the Ruling Class of German Nationality as to the Amelioration of the State of Christendom. As we saw, Luther.