I already wrote a post about Differential Reinforcementwhich is helpful for trying to understand DRA. ABA professionals always seek to accomplish behavior reduction through ethical, reinforcement based methods first.
Puppy training has revealed that most of these are notorious ineffective, or impossible to administer in practice, with the notable exceptions of variable ratio and especially, differential reinforcement.
Yet educators and trainers persist in using these relatively ineffective schedules of reinforcement when trying to teach children and employees and when attempting to train husbands and dogs.
Continuous Reinforcement CR — the dog is rewarded after every correct response, for example, the dog is rewarded after every sit Ironically, continuous reinforcement is the biggest problem in reward-based education and training today.
The dog receives far too many rewards, usually food. Certainly CR temporarily increases the frequency of behavior but CR is hopeless for maintaining the frequency and quality of behavior and CR is absolutely no good for improving the quality of behavior.
Consequently, the quality of the behavior will not improve. It is simply too silly to reward a dog for below-average responses. To make matters worse, consistent reinforcement often causes behavior to decrease in frequency and quality.
And it gets even worse. Rewarding the dog for every correct response makes it very difficult to phase out food rewards in training and usually, response-reliability becomes dependent on the owner having food in their hand or on their person.
Basically, think food vending machine. NEVER use a continuous reinforcement schedule. However, please do not confuse continuous reinforcement with the classical relationship between a secondary and primary reinforcer, e. Also, you can never give a dog too much praise, too many hugs, or too many pieces of food when classically conditioning the dog to like people, especially children men and strangers and other dogs.
But you must kick this food habit if you would like to train dogs to respond reliably to verbal cues. Fixed Duration Reinforcement FD — the dog is rewarded after a specific time, for example, after every five seconds of sit-stay FD5 FD is no good for improving the quality of performance.
In fact, FD produces marked inconsistencies in the quality of behavior — performance-quality tends drops off immediately after each reward. Performance-quality progressively improves as each expected reward-time comes closer but immediately after the dog is rewarded, attention and quality of behavior decrease because the dog knows that the next reward is sometime in the future.
Fixed Ratio Reinforcement FR — the dog is rewarded after a specific number of responses, for example after every five sits FR5 Initially FR is very good at increasing the frequency of behavior. However, performance-quality often takes a nose-dive and the dog rushes through repetitions to get another reward.
Also, if the ratio is stretched too much and too many responses are required for a single reward, the dog may slow down after being rewarded. If the ratio is stretched even more, the dog may give up altogether.
Fixed schedules are pretty hopeless in dog training. Fixed schedules are pretty useless for reliably increasing the frequency or duration of behavior and they do nothing to increase quality.
Fixed schedules do nothing to specifically instruct the dog how to do better and they do not reinforce the dog for improving the quality of behavior. Performance-quality become inconsistent and usually decreases over time. I would never use any fixed schedule of reinforcement to train a puppy.
You simply cannot motivate people on an FD schedule. The reward pay day or year-end bonus is now expected.
Similarly, FR Piece Rate may increase speed of production but usually quality control takes a beating as workers rush to meet their quota. And of cause, the workers will strike if ever the quota is too much to ask for limited pay. Variable Duration Reinforcement VD — the dog is rewarded after unpredictable length durations, for example, for a VD5, the dog is rewarded after varying durations of sit-stay that average out to be five seconds.
Variable duration reinforcement is really good at getting dogs to perform for increasing lengths of time and preparing them to work without the prospect of reinforcement.
VR makes it much easier to phase out training rewards. However, few people could calculate the ratio and train the dog at the same time. I can do this in my head because I am good at mental arithmetic.
Dog training should be relaxing and enjoyable. Much easier would be a Random Duration Reinforcement schedule. Just reward your dog after random lengths of sit-stay and progressively increase the average duration over time.
We are going to rapidly increase the duration of stays and gradually phase out food rewards at the same time.Differential positive reinforcement procedures apply when the MO is a deprivation state and differential negative reinforcement procedures, when the MO is an aversive condition.
Differential reinforcement, at its most basic, is the application of reinforcement in the event of a correct response, and no reinforcement when there is not a correct response. Beyond that, the term "differential reinforcement" applies to the following situations.
DR: Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) DR: Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible/Alternate Behaviors (DRI/DRA) DR: Differential Reinforcement of Lower/Higher Rates of Behavior (DRL/H).
-Differential reinforcement of communication (DRC), but called Functional Communication Training, is another variation of DRA where the alternative behavior that is reinforced to replace the problem behavior is a communication response.
A Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory of Criminal Behavior Created Date: Z. For more information on differential reinforcement and the many possible applications, see the resources listed at the bottom of this page.
1. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA) When applying a DRA, you will withhold reinforcement for challenging behavior and provide reinforcement for an appropriate replacement behavior.