A small, previously little known group affiliated with the Hindu-nationalist organisation, Maratha Seva Sangh - Return to top of the page - Chronology Based on Ketaki Ghoge's chronology in his article, Rape of culture leaves city in shock Indian Express, 5 Januaryand other mentioned sources. See also Anupama Katakam's article, Politics of vandalism in Frontline issue of January for a good overview and pictures. Oxford University Press India apologised and withdrew the book from the Indian market. The book continued to be listed in the OUP India catalogue until mid-January, but has since been removed.
Etymology and nomenclature[ edit ] Historic Sanskrit manuscripts: Sound and oral transmission were highly valued quality in ancient India, and its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit.
The sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought. The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, and the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit.
The term prakrta literally means "original, natural, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and later leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding.
The purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit.
This view is found in the writing of Bharata Muni, the author of the ancient Natyasastra text. The early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam came before, origin and they came naturally to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar".
The geographical spread of the Indo-European languages, with Sanskrit in the Indian subcontinent. Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages. It is one of the three ancient documented languages that likely arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a highly ambiguous writing system.
More important to the Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems the Iliad and the Odysseyc. It is divergent from the others likely due to its early separation. Discovered on clay tablets of central Turkey in cuneiform script, it possesses some highly archaic features found only fragmentarily, if at all, in other languages.
At the same time, however, it appears to have undergone a large number of early phonological and grammatical changes along with the ambiguities of its writing system. Other Indo-European languages related to Sanskrit include archaic and classical Latin c.
The Sanscrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps, no longer exists.
There is a similar reason, though not quite so forcible, for supposing that both the Gothick and the Celtick [sic], though blended with a very different idiom, had the same origin with the Sanscrit; and the Old Persian might be added to the same family.
Evidence for such a theory includes the close relationship between the Indo-Iranian tongues and the Baltic and Slavic languagesvocabulary exchange with the non-Indo-European Uralic languagesand the nature of the attested Indo-European words for flora and fauna. According to Thomas Burrow, based on the relationship between various Indo-European languages, the origin of all these languages may possibly be in what is now Central or Eastern Europe, while the Indo-Iranian group possibly arose in Central Russia.
It is the Indo-Aryan branch that moved into eastern Iran and the south into the Indian subcontinent in the first half of the 2nd millennium BCE.
Once in ancient India, the Indo-Aryan language underwent rapid linguistic change and morphed into the Vedic Sanskrit language. No written records from such an early period survive if they ever existed.
However, scholars are confident that the oral transmission of the texts is reliable: These authors represented different generations, and the mandalas 2 to 7 are the oldest while the mandalas 1 and 10 are relatively the youngest.
According to Renou, this implies that the Vedic Sanskrit language had a "set linguistic pattern" by the second half of the 2nd-millennium BCE. According to Michael Witzel, Vedic Sanskrit was a spoken language of the semi-nomadic Aryas who temporarily settled in one place, maintained cattle herds, practiced limited agriculture and after some time moved by wagon train they called grama.
The treaty also invokes the gods Varuna, Mitra, Indra and Nasatya found in the earliest layers of the Vedic literature. Jamison and Joel P. Brereton — Indologists known for their translation of the Rigveda, the Vedic Sanskrit literature "clearly inherited" from Indo-Iranian and Indo-European times, the social structures such as the role of the poet and the priests, the patronage economy, the phrasal equations and some of the poetic meters.
For example, unlike the Sanskrit similes in the Rigveda, the Old Avestan Gathas lack simile entirely, and it is rare in the later version of the language.
The Homerian Greek, like Rigvedic Sanskrit, deploys simile extensively, but they are structurally very different. The century in which he lived is unclear and debated, but his work is generally accepted to be from sometime between 6th and 4th centuries BCE.
This metalanguage is organised according to a series of meta-rules, some of which are explicitly stated while others can be deduced.
Modern scholarship generally accepts that he knew of a form of writing, based on references to words such as lipi "script" and lipikara "scribe" in section 3. This work has been translated by Jagbans Balbir. The Prakrit languages of India also have ancient roots and some Sanskrit scholars have called these Apabhramsa, literally "spoiled".
As the Indian thought diversified and challenged earlier beliefs of Hinduism, particularly in the form of Buddhism and Jainism, the Prakrit languages such as Pali in Theravada Buddhism and Ardhamagadhi in Jainism competed with Sanskrit in the ancient times.3.
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