German warning in occupied Poland — "No entrance for Poles! Slavicorigin were not allowed to join some guilds. At first the laws were aimed primarily at Jews but were later extended to "Gypsies, Negroes and their bastard offspring".
Environmentally-Related Infectious Diseases People living in low-income countries have a higher burden of disease and are more likely to be in poor health than people living in high income countries. This higher morbidity and mortality are typically due to lack of access to healthcare and greater exposure to environmental conditions that increase the risk of disease and injury.
Inthe WHO issued a report that estimated that one in four global deaths can be attributed to unhealthy environments. The CDC reports that one hundred percent of low-income countries are concurrently affected by at least five neglected tropical diseases.
With little political voice, neglected tropical diseases typically have low status among public health priorities. Inthe WHO published a comprehensive plan that established targets for the reduction of NTDs, representing a shift in these priorities.
Inan estimated 2 billion individuals needed treatment for neglected tropical diseases. Bythe estimate decreased to 1. Though many of these diseases can be treated with simple, inexpensive medications, global strategies to control NTDs also include preventive chemotherapy, Factors affecting the cleanliness of school case management, vector control, veterinary public health measures and improved water quality and sanitation.
Recent additions include mycetoma and snakebite envenoming.
This module provides a comprehensive review of a few of the major neglected tropical diseases. Infected individuals do not instantly go blind; instead, the disease manifests gradually.
Scarring from repeated infections causes the eyelashes to turn inward and scratch the cornea, a condition known as trichiasis, leading slowly and painfully to complete blindness.
Since trachoma is transmitted through close personal contact, it tends to occur in clusters, often infecting entire families and communities. Estimates suggest that 1. Women, traditionally the caretakers of the home, are four times more likely than men to be affected by trichiasis due to increased contact with to infected children and limited financial agency in health-related decisions necessary for treatment and prevention.
Recommended by the World Health Organization, the SAFE strategy is a comprehensive public health approach that combines treatment Surgery and Antibiotics with prevention Facial cleanliness and Environmental improvement.
The strategy works as follows: As ofoverindividuals received surgery for trichiasis and over 85 million antibiotic treatments were given worldwide. Over million globally are at risk for contracting river blindness.
People living near the fast-moving streams of Africa are at high risk since these areas are breeding grounds for the Simulium black fly. Larvae, which enter the skin at the black fly bite site, move throughout the body and then die, resulting in a variety of health problems including skin rashes and de-pigmentation, itching, and skin nodules.
Visual impairment and blindness occur if larvae enter the eye. This program focused on 11 countries in West Africa that aimed to make ivermectin treatment more accessible and included intensified spraying of black fly breeding sites with environmentally safe insecticides.
The program ended in after the successful end to transmission of the disease in 10 of the 11 participating countries. Current elimination barriers include political uncertainty and competing health priorities, though progress has been made and four countries within Central and South America have successfully eliminated river blindness since It is transmitted through ingestion of stagnant water that is contaminated with guinea worm larvae.
In the human body, the larvae are released and migrate into body tissues, and develop into adult worms. Though rarely fatal, symptoms include joint pain, vomiting and severe burning. There are no drugs available for treatment of the disease and the worm is instead physically removed over a period of several weeks.
Prevention is key in the eradication efforts of guinea worm, specifically by protecting water sources and filtering contaminated water.
The fight to end guinea worm was greatly influenced by The Carter Center which led the Guinea Worm Eradication Program along with partnerships with local ministries of health and global organizations beginning in the s. Guinea worm disease is on track to be the first eradicated neglected tropical diseases due to these concerted efforts on a global and local level.
Female worms release thousands of eggs which are passed out of the body and released into bodies of freshwater by urination or defecation They migrate to snails and begin the cycle again.
Some eggs trapped in the body migrate to specific organs and inflict major damage such as scarring and tearing of the bladder and kidneys. Estimates suggest that over million individuals required treatment for schistosomiasis in The most susceptible populations include children under age 14, as well as individuals with responsibilities and occupations near infested water sources.
Additional measures include efforts to eliminate the snail species required for transmission. Preventative chemotherapy, where individuals are treated without being diagnosed, has been shown to be successful in decreasing the disease burden of schistosomiasis globally.
Praziquantel is the only recommended drug to treat schistosomiasis and has also been shown to reduce the severity of symptoms in those re-infected with the disease.1.
TOM NEWBY SCHOOL EXAMINATION. Subject Geography Examiner Miss M Albertyn Date 18 November Total marks 75 Session 1 Duration 1½ hours. Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file.
For assistance, please send e-mail to: [email protected] Accommodation and the title of the report in the subject line of e-mail. Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Primary School Children Pakistan Journal of Medical Research, (April - June) 49 during examinations/tests and .
Acland Report () Consultative Committee Report Upon the School Attendance of Children Below the Age of Five. The two-factor theory (also known as Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory and dual-factor theory) states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction.
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