Introduction Representatives from Mexico, the USA and Canada met in Alberta, Canada, to examine the impact of scientific change on society and its governance.
Open in new tab After the Second World War, a small technical elite arose in developing countries such as India, Pakistan, Brazil, and Iraq who had been educated as scientists in the industrialized world.
They thought that by pushing for Manhattan project-type enterprises in nuclear energy, electronics, pharmaceuticals, or space research they could leapfrog the dismally low level of development of their countries. India, for example, started a nuclear energy program that mobilized thousands of technicians and cost hundreds of millions of dollars but failed to meet power demands.
What my scientist colleagues and national leaders alike failed to understand was that development does not necessarily coincide with the possession of nuclear weapons or the capability to launch satellites.
Rather, it requires modern agriculture, industrial systems, and education.
Instead, there were heavy economic and political costs. In India, for example, such programs led to the development of nuclear weapons—which only encouraged Pakistan to do the same—while many basic human needs such as health and education were not given the support needed.
In my view, this scenario means that we in developing countries should not expect to follow the research model that led to the scientific enterprise of the United States and elsewhere. Rather, we need to adapt and develop technologies appropriate to our local circumstances, help strengthen education, and expand our roles as advisers in both government and industry.
In this way, we can prevent the brain-drain that results when scientists are not in touch with the problems of their home countries or when they face indifference—and poor financial support—from their governments.
In Brazil, the use of ethanol as fuel is one example of how this approach can work.
In so doing, Brazil became a pioneer in an area that had been neglected by industrialized countries. The entire technology, from the agricultural to the industrial phase, was developed or improved upon by local scientists and technologists. I and other Brazilian scientists first had to convince the government that this approach was technically feasible, even though it had been ignored in industrialized countries.
To do this, we had to address questions regarding motor technology, environmental concerns, and the trade-off between raising crops for food versus fuel.
Open in new tab In general, the misconceptions held by the technical elite are derived from an idea cherished by many in the developing world that pure research leads to technological development and then to products that open new markets or conquer existing ones see figure, model A.
As one moves from pure research to technological development and then to production and marketing, unanticipated problems arise that require reexamination and adaptation at the earlier stages.
Open in new tab More realistic are models B and C. Model C illustrates the Japanese practice of having the three phases completely superimposed. These are the more realistic models that developing countries should follow.
Home» The Science of Muscle Building 0 Hours in the gym, diet after diet and loads of sweat later you look in the mirror and you’re disappointed because muscles . BUILDING THE ROLE OF SCIENCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY PROCESSES Ali Mostashari The role of science in policy making, specifically in the management of complex socio-technical systems, has been increasing in the past three decades. Role of Science in Nation Building - authorSTREAM Presentation.
In models B and C, practical needs—that is, demand—influence supply, namely, the type of pure research that is done. For example, after solid-state devices such as transistors made possible the expansion of switchboarding in telephone services, industrial laboratories such as Bell Laboratories lavishly financed solid-state physics.
As a result, universities and research centers have become isolated from the rest of the country in an ivory tower, more connected to research centers in Europe or the United States than to the obvious needs of industry, agriculture, and education in their own countries.
Science and technology budgets receive little support from the private sector and instead depend on the national treasury. What, then, is a realistic view of the role of basic science in developing countries? After all, many outstanding scientists born and educated in developing countries have contributed significantly to the advancement of science.
What can they do to help their countrymen in solving the problems of development? The answers, in my view, are the following: Help adapt technology to local circumstances.The study, published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, > Americans Exaggerate Their Home State’s Role in Building the Nation.
Published June 29, Leave a Comment Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. What, then, is a realistic view of the role of basic science in developing countries? After all, many outstanding scientists born and educated in developing countries have contributed significantly to the advancement of science.
The Role of Science and Technology in Society and Governance. Toward a New Contract between Science and Society Kananaskis Village, Alberta (Canada), November Technology is the science of the industrial grupobittia.comists have played an important role in promoting human welfare, but the benefits of science may not have reached the masses, at any rate in ample measure, without technological devices and practical grupobittia.com live in the world of both science.
Home» The Science of Muscle Building 0 Hours in the gym, diet after diet and loads of sweat later you look in the mirror and you’re disappointed because muscles . This SDG Dialogue event will consider the role of regional organizations in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), focusing on building effective links between science and policy.
Panelists and participants will exchange experiences and insights, addressing questions such as.