The different varieties of nihilism

Back to Top Nihilism is the philosophical position which argues that Being, especially past and current human existence, is without objective meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, or essential value. It asserts that there is no reasonable proof of the existence of a higher ruler or creator, that a "true morality" does not exist, and that objective secular ethics are impossible. Therefore life has, in a sense, no truth and no action is objectively preferable to any other. The term "nihilism" was first popularized by the novelist Ivan Turgenev -

The different varieties of nihilism

These are basically unresolvable with anything less than a lifetime of philosophical work, but they usually allow mutual understanding and respect. More detail on what I mean by each level: Meta-debate is discussion of the debate itself rather than the ideas being debated.

Is one side being hypocritical? Are some of the arguments involved offensive? Is someone being silenced? What biases motivate either side?

Is someone defying a consensus?

Authorama - Public Domain Books

Who is the underdog? I even think it can sometimes be helpful to argue about which side is the underdog. If it works, supporting one side of an argument imposes so much reputational cost that only a few weirdos dare to do it, it sinks outside the Overton Window, and the other side wins by default.

This is part of the process that creates polarization and echo chambers. The best result is that you never went into that space at all. They may sometimes suggest what might, with a lot more work, be a good point. And it might greatly decrease the number of guns available to law-abiding people hoping to defend themselves.

So the cost The different varieties of nihilism people not being able to defend themselves might be greater than the benefit of fewer criminals being able to commit crimes.

But this would be a reasonable argument and not just a gotcha. Single facts are when someone presents one fact, which admittedly does support their argument, as if it solves the debate in and of itself.

Second, even things with some bad features are overall net good. Trump could be a dishonest businessman, but still have other good qualities. Hillary Clinton may be crap at email security, but skilled at other things.

Even if these facts are true and causal, they only prove that a plan has at least one bad quality. At best they would be followed up by an argument for why this is really important. I think the move from shaming to good argument is kind of a continuum.

This level is around the middle. Single studies are better than scattered facts since they at least prove some competent person looked into the issue formally. Scientific studies are much less reliable guides to truth than most people think.

On any controversial issue, there are usually many peer-reviewed studies supporting each side. Sometimes these studies are just wrong. Other times they investigate a much weaker subproblem but get billed as solving the larger problem.

Probably it depends a lot on the particular job, the size of the minimum wage, how the economy is doing otherwise, etc, etc, etc. Gary Kleck does have a lot of studies showing that more guns decrease crime, but a lot of other criminologists disagree with him.

Different Kinds of Nihilism - SCP Foundation

Overall I think that would be worth it. Sometimes these can be more complicated and ambiguous. Then you can agree to use normal standards of rigor for the argument and move on to your real disagreements.

Disputing definitions is when an argument hinges on the meaning of words, or whether something counts as a member of a category or not. But if a specific argument between two people starts hinging on one of these questions, chances are something has gone wrong; neither factual nor moral questions should depend on a dispute over the way we use words.

This Guide To Words is a long and comprehensive resource about these situations and how to get past them into whatever the real disagreement is. What about laws saying that there has to be a waiting period? Nobody is ever saying that.J. L. Mackie, Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong, Penguin Some thinkers hold that moral principles can be deduced from reason and introspection, while others hold that moral principles can be deduced from a careful examination of the varieties of human behavior observed across space and through time.

The What the Hell is it Actually Called Blue Box. The cerebrum is the whole big top/outside part of the brain but it also technically includes some of the internal parts too..

The different varieties of nihilism

Cortex means “bark” in Latin and is the word used for the outer layer of many organs, not just the grupobittia.com outside of the cerebellum is the cerebellar cortex.

And the outside of . Oct 06,  · Metaphysical Nihilism: Theory that concrete objects and physical constructs might not actually exist, usually seen as the most extreme version of skepticism that denies all existence and broaches into anti-realism. Epistemological Nihilism: The theory that all knowledge is most likely untrue or unable to actually be confirmed as true.

Another version of skepticism, it questions whether anything . However, Nietzsche sees "nihilism" as the belief that this leads to despair. For Nietzsche, nihilism is overcome by a reaffirmation of individual, finite existence, by "creating new values," specifically values that are built for the earthly, finite realm, rather than for the eternal.

His solution for this is the eternal recurrence of the same. Quotations "Government is a contrivance of human wisdom to provide for human wants. Men have a right that these wants should be provided for by this wisdom" [Edmund Burke Reflections on the Revolution in France] "As the happiness of the people is the sole end of government, so the consent of the people is the only foundation for it" [John Adams].

Moral Relativism. Moral relativism is the view that moral judgments are true or false only relative to some particular standpoint (for instance, that of a culture or a historical period) and that no standpoint is uniquely privileged over all others. It has often been associated with other claims about morality: notably, the thesis that different cultures often exhibit radically different .

Fyodor Dostoevsky Biography